Europe map – Nomas Solo Sun, 10 Oct 2021 06:55:36 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Europe map – Nomas Solo 32 32 Hungary: A Black Hole on Europe’s Map Sun, 10 Oct 2021 06:55:35 +0000 An interview with G. M. Tamás by Jaroslav Fiala (A2 magazine) Jaroslav Fiala (JF): In the past you have written on post-fascism. In recent years, the growing rise of nationalist and racist forces has taken place across Europe. What is your explanation for this phenomenon? G. M. Tamás (GMT): The whole nature of European politics has […]]]>

An interview with G. M. Tamás by Jaroslav Fiala (A2 magazine)

Jaroslav Fiala (JF): In the past you have written on post-fascism. In recent years, the growing rise of nationalist and racist forces has taken place across Europe. What is your explanation for this phenomenon?

G. M. Tamás (GMT): The whole nature of European politics has changed after 1989: the two hegemonic blocs had disintegrated, after the Soviet threat which forced the internal compromise in the West resulting in the welfare state and the toleration of large West European communist parties and communist-influenced trade unions, ceased to exist. So did cease to exist the Western pressure which had set certain limits to Stalinist and post-Stalinist dictatorship. The Cold War equilibrium was over.

The more or less ‘proletarian’ counter-power together with the ‘adversary culture’ from academic Marxism to avant-garde cultural practices is gone, too. The compromesso storico – the key to the flowering of Europe from the 1960s to the 1980s – has become both unnecessary and impossible. The new states and their élites had to realise that old-style religion and nationalism is ineffectual, their foundations have crumbled, the Army and the Church are not the forces they used to be. Social integration, mass mobilization are now indirect, mediated through the media, if at all.
A sense of integration for passive and isolated citizens can be offered only by political passions that can be exercised privately, without organization, without ideology proper, in an exclusively negative way. So explanations for social discontent can be understood chiefly as the result of ‘heterogeneous’ elements (in the sense of Georges Bataille), ‘outsiders,’ ‘foreigners,’ ‘immigrants,’ ‘gays,’ non-participants (welfare cheats, layabouts, the underclass in general). This does not need mass mobilization as in ‘classical’ fascism because it does not concern any parts of the ruling class or state élites, while fascism and National Socialism, of course, did. This is an authoritarian radicalism based not on hatred, but on contempt. The hyperactive passivity of old fascism gives way to the passive passivity of post-fascism.

JF: Let’s focus on Hungary. The election showed a rightward, extremist shift, again. What is happening to your country?

GMT: It’s a difficult question – and the most important one. First of all, this was another election where genuine right-wing and pseudo-left parties had a contest. The ‘left’ coalition combined elements of human rights liberalism, pro-European business liberalism and a very vulgar ‘left’ populism, with obviously unrealistic promises. These elements went very badly together. Viktor Orbán and his national conservatives simply refused to present a programme or an election manifesto at all. Their only slogan was “We’ll continue!” Their policy is a combination of handouts to the middle class and to the middle class only, and of a very severe ‘law and order’ routine against everyone else. It’s a simple and straightforward politics of repression: censorship of the media called ‘national unity’ (that is, no audible dissent), strongly chauvinist national education at all levels, a cult of ‘hard work’ persecuting the unemployed, especially the Roma poor, a macho talk of will, force, determination, action, ‘follow-the-leader,’ virility. A new national identity rooted in football and based on extreme right football supporters’ groups, contempt for intellectuals and a generalized hatred against all foreigners (both against our neighbours in the ‘successor states’ and against the treacherous, decadent West, not to speak of our coloured brethren).

The left has been presented – following the oldest recipe – as the agents of ‘abroad,’ le parti de l’étranger. At the same time, the governing party has lost hundreds of thousands of votes that went in part to the overt fascists. The malcontent just leave the country in droves. London is today the third largest Hungarian city. The general mood is glum, there is an atmosphere of suspicion and loathing. There is xenophobia and ethnicism without the slightest trace of national pride.

JF: How would you describe Viktor Orbán and his party Fidesz? Before 1989 you were friends…

GMT: Actually, we were friends up to the mid-1990s. Mr Orbán is a very able, very ruthless, totally unprincipled and pragmatic politician, a cunning tactician and a shameless demagogue. He keeps contradicting himself and affirms the opposite of what he has trumpeted a week ago, but since he doesn’t give interviews and is never subjected to critical, let alone hostile questioning (the new House rules in Parliament make him almost exempt of any obligation to debate and to convince), he doesn’t have to account for any of these. There was not a single TV debate between Fidesz and the opposition. His rhetoric is outrageously simplified: he’s fighting the cosmopolitan powers of international finance and those of international leftist subversion to keep the Nation safe, reduce the cost of living and give back to Hungary its ancestral might, you know, a brave little David struggling with Goliath, and so on. The worst enemy can be recognized by his or her accusing the national conservative Hungarian government of anti-Semitism which does not exist, it is all a malevolent Jewish invention.

JF: Why is Orbán’s Fidesz so popular? It seems that the party expropriated many anti-capitalist elements. Basically, it says: if you are against the socio-economic system, vote for us.

GMT: It is the usual right-wing anti-capitalism of the 1930s: it makes a difference between productive and parasitic capital. Mr Orbán makes special deals with Western industrial companies that are fully or partly tax-exempt and are attracted by the extremely low Hungarian wages, but declares war against banks and against global financial institutions such as the IMF. The decorative refurbishment of Budapest (in a very poor taste, I might add) is paid for by the EU, the anti-Hungarian monster. Mr Orbán is, like many before him, the champion of the national bourgeoisie, he is by now himself a very rich man.

Like the radical right everywhere, Fidesz is opposed to anybody it deems ‘improductive’ from bankers to intellectuals to the unemployed to the old-age pensioners and to university students. ‘Improductive’ equals ‘parasitic’ equals ‘subversive.’ By their ambivalent, semi-anti-capitalist talk they have managed to become the system itself and also the opposition to the system. As it is mostly the middle class who vote, there are about two million people who would fall for this propaganda done very skilfully by the Fidesz PR and indoctrination machine (a combination of Thatcherism and Putinism), undergirded by Mr Orbán’s relentless activity and continuous initiatives in every regard.

Also people are getting restless. Mr Orbán has acquired tyrannical traits of late that might be, sooner or later, his undoing. (He seems to believe that he is actually governing Transylvania and Vojvodina as well, the fantaisiste Szekler flag is fluttering on the Budapest Parliament building, Hungarian government representatives are holding assemblies and participating in public ceremonies in Romania, without even paying courtesy calls on the local authorities. The official term is ‘reunification of the nation across the borders.’ This is nonsense, but extremely dangerous nonsense.)

JF: Is the influence of anti-communism significant? If so, how does the Hungarian right use it?

GMT: It is the old extreme-right formula: communism and liberalism are identical. They are inventions of rootless, misanthropic, mysterious circles, opposed to human nature and to the natural order. ‘We,’ true Hungarians, are conservative pragmatists, serving our own interests only, defined by a sober look at our own people and at our own country. We are no ideologists, we are looking for simple things, such as dignity, pride, well-being, a simple but comfortable life and we cherish tradition, be it the tradition of kings or peasants. And so on. And, of course, although this is only suggested, not stated, both communism and liberalism speak with a slightly Semitic accent.

JF: The election showed growing support for racist, anti-Semitic Jobbik as well. It seems this party has a lot of supporters among young people. Why?

GMT: The strength of Jobbik is its unsentimental, clear hatred of the Roma and its open wish to see them thwarted or, better, expelled. It’s based on ‘moral panic’ like the old anti-Black racism of the antebellum American South: crime, proliferation of sensual, oversexed savages etc. Also it appeals to the young middle class by its anti-establishment stance. It sees history from the point of the view of the Axis, rejects all democratic bromides and does not respect the obligatory good manners of politics between, say, 1945 and 2000. This seems rebellious and original. They are using the symbols of the old Arrow-Cross party, hated and despised even by the more mainstream fascist tendencies, and which was known by its lunatic cruelty. This is the ultimate non-PC statement.

JF: How does Jobbik operate? Is it like the Golden Dawn in Greece (e. g. organizing ‘riot police,’ militias, services for the poor etc.)?

GMT: They are not doing anything for the poor, except promising that they will rid them of the Roma, but as to the rest, it’s rather identical in method. The serial murder of six Roma executed by extreme right militants now in custody did not cause great revulsion. Instead, there are speculations how the Judeo-Bolshevik or Judeo-Liberal cabal has organized the assassinations in order to slander our people. In this climate, Jobbik has no difficult job. After the elections, the centre-left parties have propounded a ‘constructive dialogue’ or ‘debate’ with Jobbik. The fascist party cannot be kept in quarantine, declared the leadership of the Hungarian Socialist Party. In the national elections, the fascists were on the second place, now it is predicted that at the European elections they will reach the second position. In the local elections in the autumn, they might acquire 70-80 mayoralties in the provinces, pollsters say. In the new Hungarian Parliament, the select committee on culture and education will be presided by a fascist.

JF: There is a lot of hatred against Roma people in Hungary. Are there also activists defending them? Or is the civil society rather weak and passive?

GMT: There are such groups, of course, immensely unpopular. Civil society is not wholly passive, but it simply isn’t anti-racist. This might change, though, although at the moment even the centre-left has abandoned the topic and is beginning to talk, too, of ‘public security in the countryside,’ the acceptable translation of ‘Gypsy crime.’

JF: How about the Hungarian left? Why did it fail in obtaining support?

GMT: Apart from being inept, uninspired, disunited and cowardly, the centre-left had no access to the main media (the internet reaches only the young middle class, solidly on the right) and failed to present an alternative. They fought a lukewarm campaign, in the style of ‘more of the same, but better,’ also they were mired in some really disgusting corruption affairs. Their slogans praising democracy were ineffectual, as ‘democracy’ means for most people impoverishment, foreign influence, inequality, unfair employment practices, in one word: failure. ‘Democracy’ makes people laugh and I must confess, I do understand them up to a point.

JF: Given the trajectory of development of post-communist countries after 1989, it seems that most of them are in deep trouble. What went wrong?

GMT: We are all pre-communist countries. But apart from this, Eastern Europe – and the whole world – is in deep trouble. Capitalism, as we all know, is crisis-ridden, but the old consolations don’t apply. Parliamentarism and ‘the free press’ are empty even where they are tolerated by the system better than in Hungary. The left liberal recipe of redistribution is underminded by racism, xenophobia, misogyny and the like. Poverty is on the increase, but equality is hated. Anti-capitalism, too, has reverted to its pre-Marxian moralistic, often nonsensical form. Radical critical thought floats in an empty space, as the old workers’ movement is dead. A replacement for the industrial proletariat is unlikely to be found.

JF: Do you see any light at the end of the tunnel? Or are we simply walking toward more exploitation, authoritarianism and new forms of fascism?

GMT: I would be sorely tempted to say yes. But to say that would mean that we should give up thinking and feeling, and I am not prepared to propose quite that. There have been dark ages before. Our task is to keep our little lights alive and do our duty, regardless of failure, regardless of consequences. The continuity of a tradition opposed to exploitation and oppression is vital, even if we are only links in a chain, and will be probably – and justly – forgotten by a better age that might or might not come.

JF: You said that the sense of social integration can be offered only by political passions that can be exercised privately. Do you think this can be achieved only through new xenophobia? Are there any better political passions we could offer to isolated citizens today?

GMT: Passions can certainly be lived in other ways, too. And better passions may be on offer sometimes. Genuine social discontent also can be expressed by various versions of ‘moral panic’ but they won’t amount to anything much as they cannot be sustained in the way that movements (based, after all, on personal, actual, physical, temporal togetherness and shared ideals) could.

JF: Could you say a little more about the differences between the ‘classical’ and new fascism? Are there any other contrasts or similarities?

GMT: ‘Classical’ fascist movements in all their variants have been the movements of war veterans, of soldiers, with military ideas of leadership, following and mobilization. But the age of mass armies is over. More important, fascism appeared amid the collapse of the Old Régime and was a reaction to socialism, to universalist and radical proletarian revolutions. This whole context has disappeared with the defeat of the Axis in 1945, with the cold war equilibrium and its demise, de-colonization and the end of the Soviet system in 1989. What survives, apart from nostalgia for the very worst, is the inability of late capitalism to integrate the ‘heterogeneous.’ The fundamental idea of modernity, civic equality through representation and public guarantees for private lives, is becoming increasingly unthinkable, witness the anti-immigrant policies of the most ‘respectable’ Western governments. Quite simply, the conceptual ‘force’ necessary for imagining a community not based on ethnicity or on common interest narrowly defined, is lacking.

JF: You also said that we are all ‘pre-communist’ countries. What does it mean (e. g. combination of reactionary politics, cowardly and moralistic left or other things)?

GMT: Well, of course, since there was no communism yet – at best, an egalitarian state capitalism with quite a few advances of civilization, beyond tuberculosis, syphilis, mass starvation and death from freezing – we are all pre-communist, even if there won’t be any communism, ever. I don’t think that the undeniable moral failures and sins of the contemporary left are in any sense decisive, however disappointing and saddening. Those are probably only consequences. There is no ‘outside’ to capitalism, as there was in the times of Rosa Luxemburg and Lenin. (In their case, large peasant societies, colonial or not. There isn’t a revolutionary ‘outside,’ either.)

What kind of ‘adversary culture’ can be kept alive in the absence of a real adversary? Our little Marxist or anarchist conventicles express internal contradictions of late capitalism, but there is nothing outside the unified horizon of the system. It is for the first time that there is Marxist theory – actually, quite a number of excellent works and initiatives – without a Marxist movement. There have been socialists in the nineteenth century – sharply criticized by Lenin and Trotsky – who thought their work was simply a preparation for crises that would be produced by history and not by their own activity. It was waiting for reality to create the opportunity for liberation and emancipation. Neither Mensheviks nor Bolsheviks were proven right ultimately. This is a period ‘after history,’ if we mean modern history engendered by the problems of bourgeois society. These problems are sometimes solved by decadence and obsolescence rather than by anything else, but they remain mostly unsolved. Contemporary reactionary political fashions and illiberal regimes show the deep discontent but are, naturally, making things only worse. This is the situation which we are asked – by events – to address. •

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Largest Football Stadium Capacity in Europe (Map) Sun, 10 Oct 2021 06:55:19 +0000 We’re obsessed with the topic of football stadium capacity and to indulge our curiosity we’ve trawled around Europe to find the largest football stadium in each country. Some of them are international icons hosting momentous events, while others are obscure and home to teams we guarantee you have never heard of. So join us for […]]]>

We’re obsessed with the topic of football stadium capacity and to indulge our curiosity we’ve trawled around Europe to find the largest football stadium in each country.

Some of them are international icons hosting momentous events, while others are obscure and home to teams we guarantee you have never heard of. So join us for our definitive list, beginning with the smallest in Europe.

Football Stadium Capacity in Europe
Rank Country City Stadium Capacity
1 Spain Barcelona Camp Nou 99,354
2 England London Wembley Stadium 90,000
3 Germany Dortmund Westfalenstadion 81,359
4 France Paris Stade de France 81,338
5 Italy Milan San Siro 81,277
6 Russia Moscow Luzhniki Stadium 81,000
7 Turkey Istanbul Atatürk Olympic Stadium 76,092
8 Greece Athens Olympic Stadium of Athens 75,263
9 Wales Cardiff Millennium Stadium 74,500
10 Ukraine Kiev Olimpiyskiy National Sports Complex 70,050
11 Portugal Lisbon Estádio da Luz 64,642
12 Scotland Glasgow Celtic Park 60,411
13 Poland Warsaw Stadion Narodowy 58,500
14 Romania Bucharest Arena Na?ional? 55,634
15 Serbia Belgrade Stadium Rajko Miti? 55,538
16 Sweden Stockholm Friends Arena 54,329
17 Netherlands Amsterdam Amsterdam Arena 53,502
18 Austria Vienna Ernst Happel Stadion 53,008
19 Ireland Dublin Aviva Stadium 51,700
20 Belgium Brussels King Baudouin Stadium 50,093
21 Bulgaria Sofia Vasil Levski National Stadium 43,530
22 Belarus Minsk Dinamo Stadium 41,040
23 Finland Helsinki Helsinki Olympic Stadium 40,600
24 Hungary Budapest Stadium Puskás Ferenc 38,652
25 Switzerland Basel St. Jakob-Park 38,512
26 Denmark Copenhagen Telia Parken 38,065
27 Croatia Zagreb Maksimir Stadium 37,168
28 Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Asim Ferhatovi? Hase Stadium 35,630
29 Macedonia Skopje Philip II Arena 32,580
30 Norway Oslo Ullevaal Stadion 28,000
31 Northern Ireland Belfast Windsor Park 24,734
32 Cyprus Nicosia GSP Stadium 22,859
33 Czech Republic Prague Eden Aréna 20,800
34 Slovakia Považská Bystrica Štadión MŠK Považská Bystrica 20,000
35 Monaco Monaco Stade Louis II 18,523
36 Kosovo Mitrovicë Adem Jashari Olympic Stadium 18,200
37 Malta Ta’ Qali Ta’ Qali National Stadium 18,000
38 Albania Shkodër Loro Boriçi Stadium 17,300
39 Slovenia Ljubljana Stožice Stadium 16,038
40 Iceland Reykjavik Laugardalsvöllur 15,000
41 Moldova Tiraspol Sheriff Stadium 13,000
42 Estonia Tallinn Kalevi Keskstaadion 12,000
43 Montenegro Podgorica Stadion pod Goricom 12,000
45 Luxembourg Oberkorn Stade Municipal 10,000
44 Latvia Riga Skonto stadions 9,500
46 Lithuania Kaunas S. Darius and S. Gir?nas Stadium 9,180
47 Liechtenstein Vaduz Rheinpark Stadion 7,584
48 San Marino Serravalle San Marino Stadium 6,664
49 Andorra Andorra la Vella Estadi Nacional 3,306

Football Stadiums with Less Than 10,000

A micro-stadium for a microstate, Andorra’s Estadi Nacional holds just 3,306 spectators but is also the newest stadium on the map, inaugurated in September 2014.

The turf is artificial and the Andorran national football side shares it with their national rugby team. Before this one opened, Andorra would play many of their matches against larger nations at the Estadi Olímpic three hours away in Barcelona.

We can’t really call the new stadium a good luck charm, as they’re yet to record a win here. But they have scored against Wales and Belgium since the move, so that’s something.

estadi nacional andorra

Little Lithuania

The largest football ground in all of Lithuania is the Darius and Gir?nas Stadium, built in 1925 in the city of Kaunas and seating 9,250. Fair to say it’s not one of the largest stadiums in Europe.

The Lithuanian A Lyga side FK Kauno Žalgiris play their home matches here, getting maximum gates of only 794.

Despite outstripping all the other stadiums in the country, it’s only ever a temporary home for the national team, as they also play in the capital Vilnius and the city of Klaip?da.

But maybe Lithuania should play there more often, as the minnows have beaten Poland, Georgia and Scotland, and drawn with Italy on this turf.

darius girenas stadium lithuania

Cozy in Riga

The Baltic Nations like to keep things compact when it comes to football, as Skonto Stadium in neighbouring Latvia isn’t much larger.

This is where the Latvian national team and the club side Skonto Riga make their regular pushes for bigger competitions. But things haven’t really worked out for either; Skonto have been hit with financial problems, and only just made it back to the Latvian First League this season.

And Latvia continues to wait for its first post-occupation international championships. Well, if Iceland can manage it then the Latvians can live in hope.

Skonto Stadium Latvia

Stadiums with 10,000 – 30,000 Capacity

Laugardalsvöllur in Iceland can fit 15,000 spectators, but that doesn’t tell the full story as the seated capacity is just 9,500. And as the national team has improved, demand for tickets has gone through the roof.

Every international match since 2013 has been sold out, even the friendlies. So plans are afoot to expand Laugardalsvöllur. The idea is to do away with the current running track and lay the pitch several metres below where it is now.

This will bring the seating down to the side of the turf and increase the capacity by tens of thousands. A retractable roof will be added so even an Arctic winter won’t halt the charge of the team that has taken the football world by storm.

laugardalsvollur stadium iceland

International Groundshare

Kosovo have only been a UEFA member since 2016 and are embarking on their first ever World Cup qualification campaign right now. There have been a few things to work out, like the question of whether Kosovar Albanians will come to play for the new Kosovo national team or stick with nations like Albania or Switzerland.

The other head-scratcher is where the team will play their football. The largest stadium in Kosovo is the Adem Jashari Olympic Stadium in Mitrovica, and this was the site of Kosovo’s first ever Fifa approved match, against Haiti.

But they’ll actually play their qualifiers across the border in Albania’s largest ground, the 16,000-seater Loro Boriçi Stadium, which has just gone through a big upgrade and is now a UEFA four star ground.

Is this history’s first ever international groundshare?

adem jashari stadium kosovo

Dog Shows and Dance Festivals

Back to the Baltic, and Estonia, where the 12,000-capacity Kalevi Keskstaadion is the largest in the country, and hosts JK Tallinna Matches.

When the Esiliiga side isn’t performing here you might catch Estonia’s annual canine exhibition or the Estonian Youth Song and Dance Celebration.

Typically this event at the start of July will involve 8,000 performers. So no wonder the turf was deemed unplayable for football games after the festival a few years back.

The stadium was built in 1956 and is showing its age, so the Estonian national team prefers the newer but smaller A. Le Coq Arena, also in Tallinn. This was completed in 2001 and holds 10,300.

kalevi keskstaadion estonia

Who Are You?

It’s not your fault if you’ve never heard of MŠK Považská Bystrica, because they play in the seventh tier of Slovak domestic football.

They got up to the old Czechoslovak First League a few times many years ago, but have never made it near the top division of Slovak football.

Why’s this important? Well their home, Štadión MŠK Považská Bystrica, has the largest football stadium capacity in the country, holding 20,000, with 14,000 seats.

msk povazska bystrica stadium slovakia

Garden of Eden

Across the border SK Slavia Prague play in the Czech Republic’s largest football stadium, Eden Aréna, seating 21,000 and built in 2008.

It’s a much plusher arena than the Slovak counterpart, with a hotel, restaurants and a bank all part of the complex. The Czech Republic is one of those roving national teams without a fixed home, but has played here several times.

They haven’t won here since 2010, and the most recent was a friendly defeat to South Korea so it may be a while before they come back.

Also in Prague, the Strahov Stadium would blow any arena on this map out of the water. It can fit 200,000, and is easily Europe’s largest stadium, but is far too big for football matches: There’s room for nine football pitches on the turf and the First League side Sparta Prague use this behemoth as their training ground.

eden arena czech republic

Stadiums with 30,000 – 50,000 Capacity

The home stadium for FK Vardar, FK Rabotni?ki and the Macedonian national team, Philip II Arena, is a beauty, and will be seen by the world when the European Super Cup is played here in 2017.

In 2013 it completed a multi-million pound overhaul and can seat 36,460. There have been some crunch international matches in the ground, but so far this magnificent stadium with its sinuous curving roof has yet to witness a Champions League game.

One of Vardar or Rabotni?ki usually gets to the qualifying rounds but falls short. Perhaps the new format will give them a better opportunity in the future.

philip II arena macedonia

Long Goodbye

International football has been played at Oslo’s Ullevaal Stadion since 1927 when Norway were defeated 0-1 by Denmark. Getting on for 90 years later the Football Association of Norway is looking at plans to build a new 50,000-seater stadium.

Ullevaal is currently at 28,000 but despite renovations as recently as 2013 it has been deemed too costly to upgrade. The stadium’s offices host the Norwegian Football Association and the country’s Olympic Committee.

And footballers love it too; in 2012 the captain of each team in the Norwegian Tippeligaen was surveyed about their favourite away day. And Ullevaal, where Vålerenga have played their home matches since 1999, came out on top.

ullevaal stadion norway

Olympic Relic Still in Use

You may have seen the images of Sarajevo’s abandoned and decaying Olympic venues, including the ski jump and bobsleigh track. But one structure still going strong is Stadium Asim Ferhatovi? Hase, which was renovated for the games in 1984 and held the opening ceremony.

It’s been updated since then and is a UEFA three star stadium, with a capacity of 35,600. Bosnia and Herzegovina play their home matches here, as do FK Sarajevo.

As for the name, Asim Ferhatovi? Hase was one of FK Sarajevo’s great players, leading them to their first Yugoslavian First League title in 1964 and then into the European Cup. His retirement in 1967 is still seen as a landmark event in Sarajevo.

Stadium Asim Ferhatovi? Hase bosnia

Music Venue… and Football Stadium

Sofia’s Vasil Levski Stadium is where Bulgaria plays its home matches, and the football ground capacity is 43,500. The only other occupant is a regional team, CSKA 1948.

So naturally the arena is used for rock concerts: Metallica, AC/DC and Slayer have all “shredded” here, and pack in crowds of over 50,000.

When Madonna performed at the Vasil Levski in 2009 the turf was badly damaged, which didn’t impress the national team who had to play on it a few days later.

Back to football: Although no big Sofia sides use the stadium regularly, it does host the Eternal Derby between Levski Sofia and CSKA Sofia twice a season. The clubs experimented by using their own grounds for the derby a few years back but soon went back to this emblematic arena.

vasil levski stadium bulgaria

Basel’s Base

In 2001 St. Jakob Park replaced a stadium that had been here since the Second World War and hosted World Cup matches in 1954. Basel was a host city for the 2008 European Champions and the ground was expanded to its current 38,500 for the tournament.

There’s a museum in the building devoted to the owners, FC Basel, who are Champions League perennials and expected to win the Swiss Super League most seasons.

In 2006 it was the site of the title decider between Basel and FC Zürich on the final day of the season. The away side scored the winning goal in injury time, which triggered a mini riot that was only quelled after several hours with the help of tear gas and rubber bullets.

St. Jakob Park was also in the limelight back in May when Sevilla beat Liverpool here 3-1 to lift the Europa League.

st jakob park stadium switzerland

Stadiums with a 50,000 – 70,000 Capacity

And now we come to some of the largest stadiums in Europe, starting with the Ernst-Happel-Stadion in Vienna, where Spain defeated Germany in the Euro 2008 final.

From the 60s to the 90s, the stadium also held four Champions League finals, the last one being a young Ajax team’s 1-0 victory over AC Milan.

And if you don’t know who Ernst Happel was, he was an Austrian defender-turned-manager who took the Netherlands to the World Cup Final in 1978 and won the Champions League with Hamburg in 1983.

Ernst-Happel-Stadion austria

A Stadium with Two Names

One of the newer buildings on the list, Aviva Stadium was finished in 2010, and replaced the old Lansdowne Road, which had been in use since 1872.

When it was completed the stadium attracted some criticism for its size: At 51,700 it’s about 30,000 seats smaller than Croke Park, the Gaelic sports arena, which is one of the largest stadiums in Europe.

But it’s going to be involved in Euro 2020, holding three group matches and a round of 16 tie, and has already been the scene of a Europa League final in 2011, which Porto won against Braga.

Due to UEFA’s rules on stadium sponsorship, the ground is known as Dublin Stadium when it holds continental events.

aviva stadium ireland

Steep Showpiece

If you suffer from vertigo, think twice before getting a ticket for the upper tier at the Amsterdam ArenA. With an incline of 37°, it’s the fourth steepest stadium in Europe.

The stadium seats more than 53,000 and has now been open for 20 years. In this time it’s hosted the Euro 2000 semi-final between the Netherlands and Italy, which the Azzurri won on penalties.

And on the 20th anniversary of that tournament it will be a part of Euro 2020 and some 3,000 seats will be added in the next couple of years.

amsterdam arena netherlands

Warsaw’s Euro Cathedral

Euro 2012 helped furnish Warsaw with a splendid stadium for the Polish national side. During the tournament neither Poland nor co-hosts Ukraine got too far, but the National Stadium got a crowd of 55,540 for the semi-final, in which Italy beat Germany 2-1 with goals from Balotelli.

The arena has a retractable roof, which can be opened or closed in 20 minutes, although the mechanism only works if the outdoor temperature is warmer than 5°C and there’s no rainfall. Hmmm. But still, the record shows that it’s Europe’s largest stadium with a retractable roof.

Anyway, when there isn’t a match going on the amenities around the stadium make sure it’s not an empty shell, with several thousand people using the offices, shops, a hotel and fitness centre every day.

national stadium poland

Romania’s Stadium Fit for a Championship

Euro 2020 will be a pan-European affair, with matches played in several cities around the continent. One of these will be Bucharest, at the glorious Arena Na?ional?.

This was a completely new construction that opened in 2011 and straight away welcomed the Europa League final in 2012, when Atlético Madrid overcame Athletic Bilbao.

Steaua and Dinamo Bucharest both play their matches here, so the arena puts on one of the most combustible derbies in European football.

But all parties had to find temporary accommodation elsewhere from November 2015 to April of this year when the Arena Na?ional? was shut down for not having a permit for its retractable roof.

arena nationala romania

The Marakana

Serbia’s largest football stadium by capacity, Red Star Stadium can seat more than 55,500 fans, and gets its largest crowds for the infamous Eternal Derby (Serbian this time) between Red Star and Partizan Belgrade.

The stadium was built in the early 60s and over the next couple of decades saw some important matches, such as the Champions League final that Cruyff’s Ajax won against Juventus in 1973.

But if you’re a fan of football trivia you’ll be pleased to know that this was also the location where Antonin Panenka scored the original panenka penalty.

It was the deciding penalty in the final of the European Championships in 1976. The Czechoslovakian midfielder chipped his spot kick down the middle, bamboozling the German keeper Sepp Maier and earning a special place in football folklore.

red star stadium serbia

Estádio da Luz: A Myth Reborn

Until 1994 the old Stadium of Light would have easily made it to the top of the pile: It could seat 130,000 and witnessed the UEFA Cup final in 1983 and the Cup Winners’ Cup final in 1992.

The new stadium holds just under half that capacity but is still one of the largest club stadiums in Europe by capacity. The Euro 2004 final took place here, as did the climax to the Champions League in 2014.

Benfica play their Primeira Liga matches in this ground, and usually expect to win on their home turf, having won the last three editions of the competition.

estadio da luz portugal

European Stadiums Larger Than 70,000

If there’s a pattern for the largest football stadiums in Europe, it’s that many of them were built or renovated for large events. Dynamo Kiev’s Olimpiyskiy National Sports Complex is no different as it was refurbished for Euro 2012, during which it hosted the final.

Kiev share the ground with the Ukraine national team and in 2018 the stadium will hold the Champions League final.

The stadium dates to 1923 and was expanded in the early 40s: The opening ceremony took place on 22 June 1941, the very day that the Luftwaffe’s bombing campaign against Kiev began. Much later it welcomed a number of football matches during the 1980 Moscow Olympics.

olympic stadium ukraine

Greek Theatre

AEK and the Greek national side play their home games at Athens’ Olympic Stadium. It was built back in 1979 but was modernised for the 2004 Olympics, becoming one of the largest stadiums in Europe. The architect was the neo-futurist Santiago Calatrava, known for his impressive buildings that aren’t the most practical to use.

His famous bridge in Bilbao had to be shut down because it got too slippery in the rain: In one of Spain’s rainiest cities.

Anyway, unlike the other arenas constructed for the games in 2004, the Olympic Stadium lives on, as a club stadium. The average gate at AEK so far this season is just 11,677, but unlike many of the other venues from 2004, at least it’s being used!

olympic stadium greece

Legendary Luzhniki

The Luzhniki Stadium has been closed since 2013 for renovations in the build-up to the 2018 World Cup. In the meantime the Russian national team has been playing its home matches at Spartak Moscow’s Otkrytie Arena.

In 2008 Chelsea and Manchester United faced off here in the Champions League final, while in 1980 it was the main arena for the Moscow Olympics. And in 2018 it will be the venue for the World Cup Final.

When the current improvements are made the stadium will regain its four-star status, shared with the best arenas on the continent.

luzhniki stadium russia

Stade de France: A World Cup Winner

In its 18 short years of existence the Stade de France has witnessed one World Cup final, one European Championship final, the Rugby World Cup final in 2007 and two Champions League finals, in 2000 and 2006.

The most historic event would have to be the World Cup in 1998 when Zinedine Zidane led France to a 3-0 win against Brazil and caught the whole country’s imagination. It was the last time a host nation has won football’s biggest prize.

When it was built it contained a large number of innovations, like an elliptical roof that completely shelters spectators. It filters out red and infrared radiation but allows blue and green light through to help the turf grow.

stade de france paris

Sublime San Siro

Officially known as the Stadio Giuseppe Meazza, the home of AC and Inter Milan is named after a two-time World Cup winner in 1934 and 1938, who played for both Milan clubs.

Now it’s one of the largest football stadiums in Europe to be used by club teams, recognised around the world for the eleven concrete towers that encircle the arena.

These were built as part of enhancements for the 1990 World Cup, during which six matches took place at this fabled stadium. Of course, twice a year the Derby della Madonnina is played out in this amphitheatre, and it’s one of the only major cross-city derbies played in the same stadium twice a season.

Four Champions League finals have taken place on this turf, including the most recent, when Real Madrid defeated Atlético on penalties.

san siro stadium italy

The Wild Westfalenstadion

There’s a big gap between the capacity of Borussia Dortmund’s stadium for European and domestic matches. This is because of the humungous Südtribüne, a terrace for 24,454 standing fans.

Due to UEFA rules on standing, this section is shut down on European nights, reducing the stadium’s capacity from 81,360 to 65,829. So if you’ve ever fancied a trip the best time to come is for a Bundesliga match, especially against big rivals like Bayern and Schalke.

This is when the Südtribüne is in full effect, creating a wall of noise that is unmatched in club football.

And despite having a smaller capacity than the Camp Nou, the Westfalenstadion has regularly broken European club attendance records across a season, and is guaranteed to sell out every week. This formidable arena accounts for a big share of the Bundesliga’s strong attenance figures.

westfalenstadion germany

Wembley: A Royal Ransom

Wembley is second on the list of the largest stadiums in Europe. It replaced the old Wembley Stadium, which had been on this site from 1923 to 2000.

It was built at vast expense, costing an eye-watering £800 million, and can seat 90,000 spectators. As with many on the list, Wembley will host matches at the pan-European Euro 2020.

On a clear day the stadium’s arch is visible across London. This spans 315 metres and reaches a height of 133 metres, making it the largest structure of its type in the world.

Just as Arsenal occupied the old Wembley for its Champions League matches in the late-90s, Tottenham Hotspur are playing their European matches at the new one this season while White Hart Lane is demolished and their new stadium is built.

wembley stadium england

Camp Nou: A Catalan Giant

And finally, after our epic journey across the continent we get to the epic Camp Nou, the largest stadium in Europe. For football stadium capacity it eclipses all the rest, seating just over 93,000 fans.

The incredible scale is part of the Camp Nou’s allure and one of many reasons it gets on lists of the most beautiful football stadiums in the world.

And it’s a testament to FC Barcelona’s popularity that the stadium’s museum should be the second-most visited museum in the community of Catalonia.

The biggest is just about to get even bigger. Barcelona get average crowds of just over 75,000 for league matches. But by 2021 the capacity will be increased to an staggering 105,000.

Anyone who’s ever sat in the uppermost General Tier on Level Four will know how hard it can be to make out the players already.

camp nou stadium spain

Sold Out

Well, that’s your lot. We’re sorry if we didn’t include your nation in the list of the largest stadiums in Europe, but we had a whole continent to travel through.

And as for the Camp Nou’s position at top spot, it doesn’t look like anyone’s going to knock them off their perch any time soon, especially once their capacity is bumped to 103,000.

When it comes to everyone else, if you want to get further up the list then bid for a World Cup or European Championships. Into the bargain you’ll qualify to host the most exciting event in club football: The Champions League final (cue the music).

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The 5 best international football scorers in Europe (MAP) Mon, 02 Sep 2019 09:35:32 +0000 Check out our map of the top international scorers from each European nation. This shows that a player will likely have to score more than 50 goals for his country if he wants the crown. This is certainly true for the big traditional countries like France, Spain, Portugal, England and Germany. Although it’s strange to […]]]>

Check out our map of the top international scorers from each European nation. This shows that a player will likely have to score more than 50 goals for his country if he wants the crown.

This is certainly true for the big traditional countries like France, Spain, Portugal, England and Germany. Although it’s strange to see Luigi Riva still clinging to the top spot for Italy, with just 35.

Let’s review the top five:

5. Villa David

A compact and agile striker, David Villa has added a tip to Spain’s collection of technical talent. There has not been a more clinical individual finisher in the past ten years.

And Villa’s intuitive ability to run off the ball has taken him into dangerous positions time and time again.

Villa was also your man if you needed goals in big competitions: an impressive 12 of his 59 goals came in big international tournaments.

With well more than one goal every two games, Villa helped turn Spain into a team everyone feared.

4. Zlatan Ibrahimovi?

By far the best Swedish player of his generation, Ibra has led his nation to a succession of international tournaments.

In his early days, he was a nervous striker, able to dribble past defenders at will. He later established himself as a classic center-forward, but with an eye for the physical and spectacular condition few possess.

What’s also interesting about his 62-goal tally is that he went through a two-year competitive goal drought that spanned the entire Euro 2008 qualifying campaign.

To have yet achieved a record of one in two for Sweden shows just how deadly it can still be when it’s hot.

3. Robbie Keane

Still at 35, Keane is another player whose count has benefited from his longevity (67 goals).

For much of his career, the former Tottenham striker has been underestimated. Despite a brief stint at Inter Milan, he never quite reached the top level of club football.

But if you needed someone to conjure up a moment of magic, Keane would usually do it.

In his prime, he had a knack for sudden changes of direction in the box and was able to shoot under pressure.

Without wanting to minimize his accomplishments, it should be noted that many of his goals came in the qualifiers against teams like the Faroe Islands, Malta, San Marino and Gibraltar.

2. Miroslav Klose

Even though Klose’s illustrious career is only ending now, he looks like a striker from another era. He’s a goalscorer and not much more. A prolific poacher who won’t get you off your seat, but will get the job done.

Any player who reaches 137 caps and plays top football until the age of 38 must be a true professional.

But what Klose also possessed was a cruelty that only the best forwards share.

In 2002, he made it clear on the biggest stage by scoring five heads in a single World Cup, including a hat-trick against Saudi Arabia.

Its total record? 71 goals.

1. Ferenc Puskás

Before the Ronaldo and Messi era, people tried to devalue the immense scoring exploits of the “Galloping Major” as the product of another era.

But now we know that it is possible for a player to score one goal per game in a competitive environment.

Puskás had everything but a right foot. He was deadly from a distance and dialed in the region. He knew how to dribble, he was an organizer and he had a great vision.

As teammate Jeno Buzanszky said: “If a good player has the ball, he should have the vision to spot three options. Puskás has always seen at least five.

With 84 goals scored for Hungary in international matches, Puskás is number 1 on this list of top international scorers.

Who is the best of the five?

Goals don’t count for everything.

And even if they do, Puskás and Villa needed fewer matches to reach their score than the rest of the roster.

The lesson to be learned is that if you want your name to appear in the football history books, it is worth having a long career.

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Estonia ranks 21st on the Rainbow Europe map Mon, 20 May 2019 07:00:00 +0000 Estonia ranks 21st among 49 European countries in terms of laws and policies that protect the rights of the LGBT + community, according to an assessment by the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA). Now in its 10th year, the ILGA-Europe ranking has analyzed laws and policies governing LGBT + issues in […]]]>

Estonia ranks 21st among 49 European countries in terms of laws and policies that protect the rights of the LGBT + community, according to an assessment by the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA).

Now in its 10th year, the ILGA-Europe ranking has analyzed laws and policies governing LGBT + issues in 49 European countries over the past 12 months. The ranking – called Rainbow Europe – records a country’s legal standards for comparison with its European neighbors.

ILGA-Europe tracks each country using a wide range of indicators; covering everything from equality, family issues and hate speech to legal gender recognition, freedom of expression and asylum rights.

Estonia is ranked 21st on the list of 49 countries that include non-EU states, and 19th in the EU.

Overcome a legal vacuum

In order to improve the legal and political situation of LGBT + people in Estonia, ILGA-Europe recommends updating the existing legal framework for legal gender recognition in order to establish an administrative process based on self-determination and free of requirements abusive – such as gender identity disorder / medical diagnosis, medical intervention or age limits.

The organization also recommends fully implementing existing registered partnership laws to ensure that same-sex couples are recognized and protected. In 2014, Estonia became the first former Soviet-occupied country to pass a law allowing same-sex couples to legally register their civil partnerships. However, due to the change of government, the implementing laws were never passed in parliament, creating a legal vacuum.

ILGA-Europe also suggests better combating hate speech targeting members of the LGBT + community.

The best country in Europe to protect the rights of the LGBT + community is Malta – a predominantly Catholic country, it should be noted. Among Estonia’s neighbors, Finland ranks fourth, Sweden 10th, Latvia 39th and Russia 46th.

Countries are retreating

For the first time in ten years of existence of the index, countries are backing down with the disappearance of existing laws and policies: Poland no longer gives access to medically assisted procreation to single women, while Bulgaria has abolished all its administrative and legal procedures to change name or sex. marker in official documents for trans people. Serbia and Kosovo have not renewed their equality action plans.

Bulgaria, Hungary and Turkey are countries that fall in the rankings due to their governments’ failure to respect basic civil and political rights such as freedom of assembly, freedom of association and the protection of human rights defenders. humans over the past year. “The result is an increasingly dangerous and unsustainable environment for LGBTI organizations and human rights defenders in a growing number of countries,” ILGA-Europe said in a statement.

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Scottish Cup victory will put Aberdeen on the map of Europe – Theo Snelders Tue, 09 May 2017 07:00:00 +0000 Dons’ Theo Snelders and Brian Irvine, holding the trophy in 1990. Photo: Brian Stewart This was the year he signed a £ 300,000 contract with Twente Enschede, more than current manager Derek McInnes paid in transfer fees during his four years at Pittodrie. It was certainly money well spent for someone who helped the club […]]]>
Dons’ Theo Snelders and Brian Irvine, holding the trophy in 1990. Photo: Brian Stewart

This was the year he signed a £ 300,000 contract with Twente Enschede, more than current manager Derek McInnes paid in transfer fees during his four years at Pittodrie.

It was certainly money well spent for someone who helped the club double the League Cup and Scottish Cup with wins over Rangers in the first and Celtic in the second, which was settled by the very first penalty shootout in the final.

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Snelders’ penalty save against Anton Rogan secured Brian Irvine sudden death in a spectacular 9-8 win at Hampden Park for a team including other internationals such as Alex McLeish, Jim Bett, Charlie Nicholas , Stewart McKimmie and Hans Gillhaus.

Snelders admits he jumped at the chance to join Aberdeen because of the quality they could attract and their reputation across Europe at the time and was disappointed at how his former club performed. struggled for long stretches since leaving the Rangers in 1996.

The 53-year-old may be back to live and train in the Netherlands, but he still keeps a close eye on Scottish football, is encouraged by the Dons revival under Derek McInnes and sees signs of what’s going on. attracted in the first place, which will only be improved by winning the Scottish Cup.

“It’s far too long for a club the size of Aberdeen not to have won the Scottish Cup. I hope they can fix it this year, ”said Snelders. “It’s great to see them so well again and a lot of the credit goes to Derek McInnes.

“It would also be a great reward for the vision the club has shown and the structure Derek has established since arriving at Pittodrie.

“He wanted to change things and he certainly did because they have already won a cup, are doing well in the league and are playing regularly in Europe again.

“Winning the Scottish Cup would be a reward for the people who stand behind the manager and trust his vision for the club.

“It’s still what they need because when I was 24 I wanted to go abroad and you were flattered that Aberdeen cared about you.”

“It was great to have the opportunity to play for a club that is fighting for top honors and to play in Europe. It was a well-known team in Europe at the time. There was a lot of quality around and it was going to be a great one. good step in your career.

“I think the way it was in the past is coming back. If clubs like Aberdeen are interested in a player, then that is a club that will be of interest to players. The players will think: “If I go, I’m sure I can take my career one step further.”

The fact that Snelders had become an Aberdeen legend was all the more impressive as he replaced Jim Leighton on the side.

Snelders was then voted Scottish Player of the Year in 1989 and was part of the Dutch squad for the 1994 World Cup final.

The only thing missing from his time at Aberdeen was a league winner’s medal, but who knows what would have happened if an injury hadn’t kept him from winning the title on the final day at Ibrox in 1991?

However, it is this Scottish Cup final victory over Celtic that remains the highlight of his career, even though most non-Aberdeen fans forget the important role he played in the game that day. -the.

Usually the very first shootout in the final is called for the winner Irvine and the miss Rogan but Snelders insists: “This is only the case outside Aberdeen. I think in Aberdeen they know what the story is.

“It will be in my head for the rest of my life. That stoppage of Rogan, then winning the cup, was my best moment in football. I always get goosebumps when I think about this stop.

“Today there’s a lot more thinking about how you’re going to prepare for the penalty shootout, but at that time all I had in mind was that he had his left foot and he was shooting his body as a defender rather than a technical player.

“Players usually shoot across their standing leg because if you get off the ball you don’t get a lot of rhythm. “Now they have video footage of the takers to watch and even analyze the opposition goalkeeper to see if he leaves sooner or later. It’s definitely different times.

“I would love for today’s Aberdeen players to have the chance to know what it’s like to win the Scottish Cup. He would live with them forever.

I Theo Snelders was speaking at a media event in William Hill. William Hill is the proud sponsor of the Scottish Cup.

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Terror in Europe – Map reveals shocking scale of deaths and injuries in 2016 attacks | World | New Wed, 27 Jul 2016 07:00:00 +0000 Islamist attackers prompted by calls from the Islamic State to wage jihad in the West have left the continent in shock after a series of deadly attacks. A total of 170 people have been murdered without reason so far this year, a huge increase from the 2014 tally, when just four civilians were killed on […]]]>

Islamist attackers prompted by calls from the Islamic State to wage jihad in the West have left the continent in shock after a series of deadly attacks.

A total of 170 people have been murdered without reason so far this year, a huge increase from the 2014 tally, when just four civilians were killed on European soil.

2016 is also on track to beat 2015 for the number of people killed.

Last year, 267 people lost their lives, including 130 in the Paris attacks in November.

This year’s first massacre occurred in Brussels in March when 32 people were killed in two suicide bombings at the airport and on the city’s metro line.

More than 300 were also injured in the major Islamist attack in Belgium, which sparked a nationwide crackdown on suspected terrorists amid fears of planned secondary attacks on the country’s nuclear infrastructure.

This was followed on June 14 by the stabbing of a police officer and his wife in Magnanville, France.

The fanatic pledged allegiance to ISIS before launching the savage attack on the couple, whose 3-year-old son survived.

Two weeks later, 41 people were killed after three explosions hit Istanbul’s main Atatürk International Airport.

Thirteen foreigners were among the dead as well as more than 230 who were injured.

Then on July 14, 84 revelers were mowed down when an Islamist fanatic drove a heavy truck into the crowd watching the July 14 fireworks display in Nice.

More than 300 were injured in the attack, which was the first of its kind in Europe to use a vehicle rather than explosives or weapons to kill people.

The driver was Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, a Tunisian residing in France, who was shot dead by the police.

Two days later, ISIS’s online news agency Amaq claimed responsibility.

Attention then shifted to Germany which suffered a series of attacks in rapid succession.

It all started with a 17-year-old migrant who attacked train passengers with an ax near Würzburg on July 18.

Four days later, on July 22, an 18-year-old German of Iranian descent massacred nine people – mostly teenagers – in Munich.

The attack was reportedly unrelated to Islamist extremism, as the killer was inspired by right-wing terrorist Anders Breivik.

On July 24, a Syrian injured 15 people by detonating an explosive device in his backpack near a music festival in Ansbach.

A day later, another Syrian refugee killed a woman in a frenzied machete attack in Reutlingen, near Stuttgart.

Back in France on Tuesday July 26, two ISIS sympathizers murdered a priest and seriously injured another after targeting a church in Normandy.

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Map of Europe / Map of Europe – Facts, Geography, History of Europe Fri, 22 Apr 2016 05:17:10 +0000 Europe History As for Europe, a brief chronological account of its significant events begins in prehistoric times with the emergence of Homo sapiens (first man), some 40,000 years ago. The earliest inhabitants of the Paleolithic Age, in an effort to survive, banded together into small societies such as bands and subsisted by gathering plants and […]]]>

Europe History

As for Europe, a brief chronological account of its significant events begins in prehistoric times with the emergence of Homo sapiens (first man), some 40,000 years ago.

The earliest inhabitants of the Paleolithic Age, in an effort to survive, banded together into small societies such as bands and subsisted by gathering plants and hunting wild animals.

The practice of cultivating the soil, producing crops and raising livestock began in the Neolithic Age about 9,000 years ago; stone tools were used and people began to live in small groups or villages.

As man continued to travel from east to west through Eurasia (a combination of Asia and Europe) knowledge of tools and new methods of organization arrived; civilizations flourished while metal axes and arrowheads improved survival.

In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages. Classical Greek culture had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire, which brought a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean region and northern Europe. In short, Greek culture provided the foundation for modern Western culture.

Among the great civilizations that developed in Europe, the aforementioned Roman Empire certainly had the most lasting influence. During his often tumultuous 500-year period of innovation, he changed the continent and had a deep and lasting influence on the development of modern architecture, language, law and religion.

After its collapse, the Eastern Roman Empire survived (285-1450) as the Byzantine Empire. In Western Europe, a wide range of tribes and tribal alliances held positions of power in the remnants of the ancient Roman Empire; small kingdoms were being established and the geography of Western Europe was about to change.

The Frankish Kingdom was a territory in southeastern Europe inhabited and ruled by the Franks. They would evolve into the Kingdom of France, and parts of it would turn into the Holy Roman Empire, a forerunner of Germany as we know it today.

The Anglo-Saxons quickly crossed (what is now) the English Channel to southern Britain and established a series of kingdoms in what would become the Kingdom of England in AD 927; 100 years later, the kingdoms of Poland and Hungary will also take shape.

The Viking Age in Northern Europe and Scandinavia extended from the late 8th to the mid 13th century. With little interest in acquiring land, the Scandinavian (Nordic) Vikings aggressively explored Europe for trade and wealth. The Vikings also reached Iceland, Greenland, Newfoundland and Anatolia (Turkey).

The Normans (a Viking people) gave their name to Normandy, a region in northern France. Appearing in the first half of the 10th century, they had a significant impact on many parts of Europe, from the Norman conquest of England to southern Italy and Sicily.

europe clipart

At the end of the 15th century, great powers emerged in Europe, with England, France, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain playing a predominant role in world affairs from the 15th century onwards, especially after the beginning of colonialism.

The European colonial period, from the 1500s to the mid-1900s, was the time when the European powers mentioned above established colonies in Asia, Africa and the Americas. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European nations controlled, at various times, the Americas (north and south), most of Africa, Oceania, and much of Asia.

As people yearned for freedom across the world, the European colonial era began to collapse. Specifically, the British Empire, the first truly global empire, began to lose its powers in Africa, India and much of the Middle East, and they quickly collapsed.

World Wars I and II were also detrimental to the continent, as they were largely focused on Europe. The enormous costs of both wars greatly contributed to the decline of Western European dominance in world affairs, and some Eastern European countries have not yet fully recovered.

After the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989 and after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Europe has certainly changed for the better. European cultures and factions quickly integrated, the Council of Europe was formed, and the European Union (EU) flourished in Western Europe.

Today it is safe to say that Europe is a major center of economic and political power. As for its people, this is an innovative, optimistic and resilient group that has changed our world for the better more than once, and they surely will do it again.

Facts about the geography of Europe

For more geographic details, please use the yellow navigation bar at the top of this page. Note that some statistics shown below are in European Russia, although this landmass is geographically considered to be part of Russia, an Asian country.

  • The Vatican is the smallest country in Europe
  • Germany is the largest country in Europe in terms of population
  • The Vatican is the smallest country in Europe in terms of population
  • The highest point in Europe is Mount Elbrus in Russia
  • The lowest point in Europe is the Caspian Sea bordering Russia
  • (If European Russian is excluded, the higher and lower statistics shown below apply to mainland Western Europe)

  • The highest point in Europe is Mont Blanc in France and Italy
  • The lowest point in Europe is Lemmefjord in Denmark

Notes on geography of Europe

russia european

The Russian landmass west of the Urals Mountains is commonly referred to as European Russia in most educational atlases and by the vast majority of geography experts. It is not a separate country, but rather so called due to its long-term political, cultural and geographic merger with neighboring European countries. For reference purposes, it is stated above, however, the whole country (as a whole) is still considered to be part of the Asian continent.

European Russia is approximately 3,960,000 km² (1,528,560 square miles) and covers approximately 40% of Europe. Its eastern border is defined by the Ural Mountains and to the south it is defined by the border with Kazakhstan. Note that nearly 77% of the entire Russian population (approximately 110,000,000 people out of an approximate total Russian population of 141,000,000) live in European Russia.

European news

Links to daily updated European news.

  • Famous native sons and daughters of Europe
  • Facts and figures about Europe, capitals and currency
  • Flags of European countries
  • Land statistics in Europe, highest and lowest points
  • Reliefs, lakes, mountains and rivers of Europe
  • Europe latitude, longitude and relative locations
  • Europe connects the main attractions and points of interest
  • Maps of Europe, outline, political and topographic
  • Symbols, coat of arms and flags of Europe
  • European time zones and current times
  • Chronology of events and history of Europe
  • European travel information, air fares, cruises and train journeys
  • Weather forecast and current conditions in Europe

Map Europe

Europe is the 6th largest continent on the planet AND includes 47 countries and various dependencies, islands and territories. The recognized area of ​​Europe covers approximately 9,938,000 km² (3,837,083 mi²) or 2% of the Earth’s surface, and approximately 6.8% of its area.

In demanding geographical definitions, Europe is really not a continent, but a part of the Eurasian peninsula which includes all of Europe and Asia. However, it is still widely referred to as an individual continent.

The European continent, bordered by numerous bodies of water, is separated from Asia by the roller coaster of the Urals and by the Caspian and Black Seas. It is separated from Africa by the Mediterranean Sea.

European Topographic Map

topographic map of europe

A topographic map highlights the hills, mountains and valleys of a specific land area by exaggerated shading rather than using contour lines. In this image, although small in size, one can easily see the mountainous areas of Norway and Spain. For a better view of the mountains and topography of Central Europe, check out the map below.

Topographic map of Europe (Central Europe)

relief map of europe

On this larger slice of a European topographic map, you can clearly see the main rivers of Central Europe, as well as the Alps that flow through Austria and Switzerland. Note the Apennine chain that stretches across Italy. Specific details on a wide variety of European landforms can be found on this page.

Blank Map of Europe

Blank Map of Europe

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Political map of europe

Political map of europe

Political maps are designed to show the government boundaries of countries, states, and counties, the location of major cities, and they typically include significant bodies of water. Like the European political map above, bright colors are often used to help the user find borders. A larger version of this map here.

Map of rivers of Europe

major rivers of Europe

Hundreds of rivers and their tributaries cross the European continent. Here we highlight those over 600 miles long, and a few more of note. Specific details on these rivers can be found here.

Facts of the world

Useful information about populations and more that is updated weekly.

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Greece ranks 21st on Rainbow Europe map and index Thu, 14 May 2015 07:00:00 +0000 The recognition of LGBTI rights in Europe remains a challenge to this day, as it appears that in several cases states and companies have failed to respond adequately.ILGA-Europe in collaboration with Rainbow Index conducted a report and found that several European countries can be described as “hostile” towards the LGBTI community. They are far from […]]]>

The recognition of LGBTI rights in Europe remains a challenge to this day, as it appears that in several cases states and companies have failed to respond adequately.
ILGA-Europe in collaboration with Rainbow Index conducted a report and found that several European countries can be described as “hostile” towards the LGBTI community. They are far from fulfilling 100% of the 48 criteria that have been set in national laws and to what extent they recognize or violate the rights of the LGBTI community.
Greece’s overall score was 39%, ranking 21st among European countries when it comes to respecting the rights of the LGBTI community. “Disapproval of LGBTI people has remained high, fueled by comments from the Greek Orthodox Church and right-wing politicians. This has led to several homophobic and transphobic attacks. In a positive way, the parliament passed a law punishing speech and crimes motivated by prejudice, especially on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity. The rules have also been changed to punish homophobic or transphobic behavior within the police, ”the report notes.
“Greece continued to drag its feet in the implementation of a 2013 judgment of the European Court of Human Rights, still prohibiting same-sex couples from entering into registered partnerships accessible to different-sex couples.” , he added.
The highest score was recorded in the UK (86%) while, according to a report by The Independent, Scotland appears to be the UK’s most LGBTI-friendly region, meeting 92% of the criteria. The UK was followed by Belgium with 83%, Malta 79% and Sweden with 72%.
On the other hand, the lowest rates were recorded in Russia and Azerbaijan – two countries also included in the report – which got only 8% and 5% respectively.

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